Drilled shafts are constructed in the following stages:
- the soil is removed using drill tools chosen according to the particular characteristics of the ground
- the slurry is regenerated by "removing" the coarsest material of the soil (this process is called "desanding")
- a steel reinforcement cage is inserted in the bore hole
- the bored hole is filled with concrete.
To prevent the soil near the surface from collapsing, it is established practice to first insert a co-axial casing with a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the tool. The actual length of the casing depends on the characteristics of the soil encountered in the first couple of metres of soil excavated.
This temporary casing is usually driven into the ground using the rotary head of the drilling rig or a hydraulic vibratory hammer connected to a service crane.